In Iris Parush’s piece “Gender Roles and Women’s Window of Opportunity” she explains Jewish women in the 19th century were the breadwinners of the family unit, “permitting them to learn foreign languages, to acquire secular education, and to receive exposure to modernity” (Parush 39). For centuries before and continuing throughout the 19thcentury, the societal expectations for Jewish men were for them to learn Torah and Talmud. Therefore, with the “economic duress” of the 19th century women were looked to provide doubly for their families, filling the role of both the housewife and more importantly the breadwinner. Consequently, women needed to be educated to be successful professionally, creating for them a “window of opportunity” (Parush). Nevertheless, though women were educated, they still were unable to insert themselves into the Hebraic literary cannon in the 19th and early 20th century due to literary environment. However, though this is true for the 19th and early 20th century, perhaps it this opportunity of education that allowed women to enter the Hebraic literary cannon in the 1920s.
In Dan Miron’s essay “Why Was There No Women’s Poetry in Hebrew Before 1920?” he argues women’s poetry in Hebrew emerged in the 1920s due to the “profound change in the relation of the literature and the culture as a whole to poetic language” (Miron 70). With the “weakening of the old hierarchies in the literary establishment,” namely “Bialik’s poetics,” the literary atmosphere evolved, allowing the themes and styles of female poetics to be included into the Hebraic literary cannon (Miron 66). Thus, the inability for women to have their voices heard in the 19th and early 20th century was not due to “misogyny and male chauvinism,” Miron argues, but rather was because the thematic mediums of female poetic expression did not fit the literary establishment of the time (Miron 70). However, once the literary atmosphere evolved, educated women were then able to join the Hebraic literary cannon.